Roberto Rodriguez 


Background: Visuospatial features of neuroanatomy are likely the most difficult concepts to learn in anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) modalities have gradually begun to supplement traditional 2D representations of dissections and illustrations. Presently, we introduce and describe the workflow of two innovative methods-photogrammetry (PGM) and structured light scanning (SLS) -which have typically been used for reverse-engineering applications. This study aims to describe a novel application of SLS and PGM that may enhance medical education and operative planning in neurosurgery. Methods: We described the workflow of SLS and PGM for creating volumetric models (VM) of neuroanatomical dissections, including the requisite equipment and software. We also provided step-by-step procedures on how users can post-process and refine these images based on their specifications. Lastly, we applied both methods to three dissected hemispheres to demonstrate the quality of the models and their applications. Results: Both methods yielded models that uphold suitable clarity and structural integrity for anatomical education, surgical illustration, and procedural simulation. Conclusions: The application of 3D computer graphics to neurosurgical applications has shown great promise. SLS and PGM can facilitate the construction of volumetric models with high accuracy and quality, which may be used and shared in a variety of 3D platforms. Similarly, the technical demands are not high, and so it is plausible that neurosurgeons may become quickly proficient and enlist their use in education and surgical planning. While SLS is preferable in settings where high accuracy is required, PGM is a viable alternative that has a short learning curve.


[Keywords for this session: surgical neuroanatomy, education, 3D scanning, photogrammetry, structured light, volumetric models, extended reality, 3D animation] 

Speaker Bio

Dr. Rodriguez is an Assistant Professor of Neurological Surgery and Otolaryngology at UCSF. He is the Director and principal investigator of the laboratory, with extensive experience in neurovascular, white-matter, and skull base neuroanatomy. He is also trained in creating 3D anatomical models and virtual neurosurgical simulations. Dr. Rodriguez Rubio oversees the daily activities of the lab, and mentors fellows and students.