Marios Loukas

As scientists we rely on nomenclature of structures to aid in their description, particularly their orientation in respect to their surroundings. With exception of the heart, organs and structures in the human body are described relative to “anatomical position,” using well-acquainted terminology such as superior, inferior, posterior and anterior. Unfortunately, the heart is still described in the original “Valentine” orientation. Scientists, especially medical doctors and illustrators, should correct the nomenclature to decrease the confusion, but more importantly to improve patient care. In this presentation we will discuss the anatomical mistakes that are frequently made, as well as the attitudinally correct nomenclature for the cardiac structures. We will also present illustration mistakes from atlases and compare it with dissections so that the audience will gain an appreciation of the common anatomical mistakes that persist in the literature and books. 

Marios Loukas

Marios Loukas

Marios Loukas, MD, PhD, is the Dean of Basic Sciences at St. George’s University School of Medicine. In 2005, he joined St. George’s University in Grenada and shortly after became

Professor and Chair of the Department of Anatomical Sciences. Dr. Loukas has published over 600 papers in peer-reviewed journals, authored 12 books, including Gray’s Anatomy Review, Gray’s Clinical Photographic Dissector of the Human Body, McMinn and Abrahams’ Clinical

Atlas of Human Anatomy, History of Anatomy, and Bergman’s Comprehensive Textbook of Human Variation and has authored 18 chapters in various medical and surgical textbooks, including Gray’s Anatomy. He is Co-Editor of the journal Clinical Anatomy and the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Translational Research in Anatomy. He is the President-elect of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists.